The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated 600,000 members in 1956, was affected most adversely. This means they use less biocapacity than Latvia contains. [citation needed], In the 19th century, Latvian nationalist movements emerged. The only other airport handling regular commercial flights is Liepāja International Airport. During the transitional period, Moscow maintained many central Soviet state authorities in Latvia. [140][141][142] Latvia also took part in the US-led Multi-National Force operation in Iraq (2003–2008)[143] and OSCE missions in Georgia, Kosovo and Macedonia. Latvian non-citizens and the citizenship debates", "Latvia: Investigate Attacks on Gay Activists", "Participation in International operations", "US-led coalition forces operation in OIF (Operation Iraqi Freedom)", "Dombrovskis and US Ambassador Garber visit Riga Airport to inspect cargo plane to Afghanistan", "One year on: ISAF's trans-European supply routes are a success", "NATO opens new communication lines to Afghanistan", "Nordic Military Alliance With Latvia in Afghanistan", "V.Dombrovskis: Latvia sees the opportunity to strengthen NATO's strategic communication capability", "Baltic Defence Ministers announced new defence cooperation initiatives", "Nordic Countries Invite Baltics to Join Defence Co-operation Framework", "Joint Baltic Military Staff to Be Established", "Turpina pieaugt iedzīvotāju atbalsts eiro ieviešanai", "Rimsevics: Failing to bail out Parex banka would result in closing down of four banks in Latvia", "Latvian GDP Shrank 18% in First Quarter, EU's Biggest Fall –", "Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Latvia on Trade Relations and Intellectual Property Rights Protection", "Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat), Monthly Bulletin: Table in chapter 09, section 01", "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", "UPDATE 2-IMF hails Latvia effort but sees risks ahead", "IMF Executive Board Concludes First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia, July 16, 2012", "Satiksmes ceļu garums gada beigās (kilometros)", "Reģistrēto automobiļu skaits ceturkšņa beigās", "The Outlook of Latvian Potential Underground Gas Storages and Prospects of Utilization of this Potential for Securing of Reliable Gas Supply to Europe", "TSG11-06. CCPR/CO/79/LVA, 1 December 2003, "A new kind of citizenship accepted by EU? Latvians comprise 0.4% of the total EU population. Its national insect is the two-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata, Latvian: divpunktu mārīte). In 1282, Riga, and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. By the spring of 1919, there were actually three governments: the Provisional government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis, supported by Tautas padome and the Inter-Allied Commission of Control; the Latvian Soviet government led by Pēteris Stučka, supported by the Red Army; and the Provisional government headed by Andrievs Niedra and supported by the Baltische Landeswehr and the German Freikorps unit Iron Division. In 2018, share of population aged 30–34 with tertiary education attainment in Latvia was above the EU average, but adults' participation in lifelong learning is below the EU average. Two thirds of Latvians voted to join, and on 1 May 2004 Latvia became a member of … At the start of 2005, the lats was pegged to the euro at Ls … [105], Several nature reserves protect unspoiled landscapes with a variety of large animals. [48], The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in 1817 and in Vidzeme in 1819. 2. Latvia Highlights . [165] As of 2015, Latvia is estimated to have the lowest male-to-female ratio in the world, at 0.85 males/female. Latvia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy [27][28] and ranks 39th in the Human Development Index. By 2011, more than half of non-citizens had taken naturalization exams and received Latvian citizenship. The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. Selonia, a part of Zemgale, is sometimes considered culturally distinct region, but it is not part of any formal division. In Copenhagen on 13 December 2002, Latvia and nine other countries were invited to join the European Union. [195] Other important universities, which were established on the base of State University of Latvia, include the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (established in 1939 on the basis of the Faculty of Agriculture) and Riga Stradiņš University (established in 1950 on the basis of the Faculty of Medicine). [177] The best known roads are A1 (European route E67), connecting Warsaw and Tallinn, as well as European route E22, connecting Ventspils and Terehova. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province (the Courland Governorate) in 1795, bringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire. Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in 1994 and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in 1998. Its largest lake, Lubāns, has an area of 80.7 km2 (31.2 sq mi), its deepest lake, Drīdzis, is 65.1 m (214 ft) deep. It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the United States, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century. [166] In April 2010 Latvia had the highest unemployment rate in the EU, at 22.5%, ahead of Spain, which had 19.7%.[167]. [37] The southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Duchy of Livonia (Ducatus Livoniae Ultradunensis). ECDC switched to a weekly reporting schedule for the COVID-19 situation worldwide and in the EU/EEA and the UK on 17 December 2020.Hence, all daily updates have been discontinued from 14 December. [citation needed][108]. The growth momentum has continued into 2012 and 2013 despite deteriorating external conditions, and the economy is expected to expand by 4.1 percent in 2014. For Latvian student corporation, see, Country on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, Reformation period and Polish–Lithuanian rule, Livonia & Courland in the Russian Empire (1795–1917), Economic contraction and recovery (2008–12). [175] However, Rail Baltica railway, linking Helsinki-Tallinn-Riga-Kaunas-Warsaw is under construction and is set to be completed in 2026. [56]:271, More than 200,000 Latvian citizens died during World War II, including approximately 75,000 Latvian Jews murdered during the Nazi occupation. [189], Beginning in 2019, instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools,[190][191] except for subjects related to culture and history of the Russian minority, such as Russian language and literature classes.[192]. The country has very few natural resources and imports all of its natural gas and oil, as well as half of its electricity needs. [78], However, the central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a Soviet republic in 1990 and 1991. The following article is a part of a series of brief country profiles for the EU-28 ahead of the European elections in May. 'The publication, which followed two decades of public debate and the passage of a special law, revealed the names, code names, birthplaces and other data on active and former KGB agents as of 1991, the year Latvia regained its independence from the Soviet Union. Latvia replaced its previous currency, the lats, with the euro on 1 January 2014, after a European Union assessment in June 2013 asserted that the country had met all convergence criteria necessary for euro adoption. The major goals of Latvia in the 1990s, to join NATO and the European Union, were achieved in 2004. [citation needed] In Latvia, the Swedish period is generally remembered as positive; serfdom was eased, a network of schools was established for the peasantry, and the power of the regional barons was diminished. According to statistics in late 2013, 45% of the population supported the introduction of the euro, while 52% opposed it. [187] It has been held since 1873, normally every five years. ECDC will publish updates on the number of cases and deaths reported worldwide and aggregated by week every Thursday. [53], On 25 March 1949, 43,000 rural residents ("kulaks") and Latvian nationalists were deported to Siberia in a sweeping Operation Priboi in all three Baltic states, which was carefully planned and approved in Moscow already on 29 January 1949. Eager to join Western economic institutions like the World Trade Organization, OECD, and the European Union, Latvia signed a Europe Agreement with the EU in 1995—with a 4-year transition period. And from 70 females are 2,3 times more than males. is Latvia’s official website where you’ll find information about Latvian culture, history, economy, society, sports and more, Get to know Latvia! [65] Most sources count 200,000 to 250,000 refugees leaving Latvia, with perhaps as many as 80,000 to 100,000 of them recaptured by the Soviets or, during few months immediately after the end of war,[66] returned by the West. Since Latvia had maintained a well-developed infrastructure and educated specialists, Moscow decided to base some of the Soviet Union's most advanced manufacturing in Latvia. (On March 27, 2007 the Border Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Latvia recognizes Abrene (now Pytalovo) as a ceded territory, thus opening the opportunity for Latvia to proceed with the official demarkation of the border which is a pre-requisite to Latvia’s joining the Schengen zone of the European Union.) [207] Folk songs and classical choir songs are sung, with emphasis on a cappella singing, though modern popular songs have recently been incorporated into the repertoire as well. In 2015 Latvia held the presidency of Council of the European Union. the Commission or Parliament). Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March 1990 democratic elections. Weekly updated information on COVID-19 reported in the EU/EEA. [139], Latvia participates in international peacekeeping and security operations. [217], Latvia has participated successfully in both Winter and Summer Olympics. As of 1 May 2004 it is a member State of the European Union (more info). Other popular sports include football, floorball, tennis, volleyball, cycling, bobsleigh and skeleton. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa. With most of Latvia's industrial base evacuated to the interior of Russia in 1915, radical land reform was the central political question for the young state. Latvia is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic. [46], The capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 and the Treaty of Nystad, ending the Great Northern War in 1721, gave Vidzeme to Russia (it became part of the Riga Governorate). [198] The greatest number of patents, both nationwide and abroad, are in medical chemistry. Just over two-thirds of voters voted Yes and Latvia joined the EU on 1 May 2004. [210], Starting in 2019 Latvia hosts the inaugural Riga Jurmala Music Festival, a new festival in which world-famous orchestras and conductors perform across four weekends during the summer. Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been privatised, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. [37] The local people, however, did not convert to Christianity as readily as the Church had hoped. On occasions, especially in 1944, opposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle.[56]:299. "[136] Additionally, there have been reports of police abuse of detainees and arrestees, poor prison conditions and overcrowding, judicial corruption, incidents of violence against ethnic minorities, and societal violence and incidents of government discrimination against homosexuals. In 1897, 61.2% of the rural population had been landless; by 1936, that percentage had been reduced to 18%. 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