Only Homo sapiens survived and thrived, transforming the face of the planet along the way. It marked the moment humans cemented themselves at the top of the food chain. This means that the rest of the food chain wasn't ready and neither were we. From about 2 million years ago until 10,000 years ago, multiple human species roamed the earth together. You might think that this is a boring book, but it's actually a fascinating book with lots of important events such as 2011 Egyptian evolution. Today, our best minds work on preventing death through biological, hormonal, and genetic means. If this is true, then for how much longer will we ignore that biology does not agree with the concept of free will? An animal of no significance -- The tree of knowledge -- A day in the life of Adam and Eve -- The Flood -- Part 2. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind is a book bound to appear on a large number of coffee tables and favorite lists, and be picked up even by those who normally would not find the time for reading. Thus, the real test of knowledge is not truth, but utility. Note to self: never disregard your psychological needs. de Animales a Dioses: Una Breve Historia de La Humanidad (Spanish Edition) • The first Homo sapiens appeared in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, but only started to spread outside Africa 130,000 years later. Today there is just one. Our view of the past is heavily influenced by recent events. In academic circles, stories are known as fictions, social constructs, or imagined realities. The depiction of man evolving from hunched over to upright incorrectly displays human evolution as a linear trajectory. They didn't have to wait millions of years for a genetic change. It's just that the names, shapes, and sizes of the pyramids change from one culture to another. Read a 15 min summary of Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari, available in Book and Audiobook format. Check out the author’s site at www.ynharari.com or read more about the future of mankind in our Homo Deus summary here! Homo sapiens first made it to America about 16,000 years ago. Why did Homo sapiens suddenly flood the planet when our ancestors didn’t do so after millions of years? Over time, the survivors forget their origins and adopt common cultures that’re hybrids of their own and the ruling elites’. There are a variety of “natural law religions” that are popular today like communism, capitalism, and liberalism. Lightning was believed to be a sign of Gods’ wrath, until Benjamin Franklin disproved it with lightning rods. Money acts as a common medium for strangers (and even rivals) to cooperate and transact. Over the last 200 years, science has increasingly revealed that human behavior is determined by hormones, genes, and neurological synapses. The Agricultural Revolution actually didn't make the life of the average human better at first. By DOROTHEA SHEFER-VANSON . When it comes to gender inequality: biology enables, culture forbids. For most of human history, per capita production remained the same. Harari attributes it to our language–we’re the only species that can imagine and communicate about things that don’t exist. The Scientific Revolution started in Europe around 500 years ago. As of 2006, there were still 53 countries where a husband could not be legally prosecuted for raping his wife. The telling of myths and stories allow Homo sapiens to collaborate in large numbers in extremely flexible ways. The dog was the first animal domesticated by humans around 15,000 years ago. In the book / full Sapiens summary, we look at what really happened when Western nations colonized the distant lands, and how our “authentic” cultures today are often no more than a mix of various imperial legacies and other cultural influences. The next stage of human history will not only involve biological and technological changes, but also changes in human consciousness and identity. Not just for humans, but for domesticated animals like cows, sheep, and chickens as well. Often, they blended new together with the conquered people to create a new culture. The creation of money was purely an intellectual revolution. Farming supposedly gave us a better life, but Harari calls it the biggest fraud in history. However, at the individual level we are much more specialized today. Religions legitimize imagined realities–they justify certain norms and values by claiming they come from a superhuman entity. Large numbers of people can collaborate by sharing common myths and beliefs. We also discuss why credit (and its cousins, Capitalism and Consumerism) are the real drivers for our modern economy, why our global systems will collapse without infinite growth and the roles of science and capitalism in supporting our endless demand for more energy, food and wealth. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind is published by Harvill Secker (£25). There have only been options from a variety of cultures. It seems obvious that we are moving fast toward a singe global empire. The unification of humankind. Global markets, global warming, and commonly accepted concepts like human rights make it clear we all need one collective entity, not man states and countries. Interestingly, polytheism is more open and accepting of multiple beliefs even though we often look at it as more barbarian and uneducated than our current beliefs. Day and night. Yet, we still seem unhappy in many ways and we are unsure of what we want. The are level one and level two Chaotic Systems. The economic, religious, and political interests that impact the flow of money into scientific and technological research have a huge impact on the output of science. It did, however, allow humans to collect more food per unit area and thus the overall population multiplied exponentially. The truth is war prompts many scientific discoveries. Around 100,000 years ago, there were at least 6 Homo species co-habiting Earth, including the Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis. The Agricultural Revolution was accompanied by a Religious Revolution. You can get more actionable ideas in my popular email newsletter. This brief overview of Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind tells you what you need to know—before or after you read Yuval Noah Harari’s book. The idea of “unnatural” behaviors is actually a result of Christian theology, not biology. One difference between religion and science is that science assumes humankind does not know the answers to many of life's biggest questions. In the book / full Sapiens summary, we also take a closer look at several recent/ongoing changes, many of which are irreversible. Each individual generation didn't see how their life was becoming worse because the small changes were so tiny. Modern culture has been able to admit ignorance more than any previous culture. If it is possible biologically, then it is natural. Harari covers many other details in the book, including facts and theories about: • Sapiens’ biological and cultural evolution; and • Our key milestones (e.g. We also look at the new imagined realities and orders (e.g. In other words, you have to understand yourself. In the book, Harari traces the origins and evolution of various religions, including how Christianity and Islam started out as minority sects but became dominant religions. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind—Yuval Noah Harari; Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike—Phil Knight; Sigmund Freud en son temps et dans le nôtre—Élisabeth Roudinesco; Deepak Chhugani (Founder / The Lobby) I absolutely prioritize books recommended by friends or certain people. Economic and capitalistic interests, for example, determine what we research and what to do with the research findings. The “religion” of capitalism says economic growth is the supreme because justice, freedom, and happiness requires economic growth. Homo sapiens has the special ability to unite millions of strangers around commons myths. Combining history, with biology, cultural anthropology, psychology and other fields, Harari surveys the development of key aspects of our society through the ages. Despite the obvious negatives of empires taking over a culture, there are many benefits too. Harlow's infant monkey studies from the 1950s (and a variety of followup studies) have shown that animals have strong psychological needs as well as purgative physical needs. History's biggest fraud -- Building pyramids -- Memory overload -- There is no justice in history -- Part 3. Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. Click here to buy it for £18.99 with free UK p&p. Human history has been shaped by three major revolutions: the Cognitive Revolution (70,000 years ago), the Agricultural Revolution (10,000 years ago), and the Scientific Revolution (500 years ago). “This is the basic lesson of evolutionary psychology: a need shaped in the wild continues to be felt subjectively even if it is no longer really necessary for survival and reproduction.”. Each revolution brought mass destruction and extinction, new myths, ideologies and imagined orders. 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