7 0 obj <> View Disability Studies Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) in the Phils. Nations U. Vaughan C, Zayas J, Devine A, Gill-Atkinson L, Marella M, Garcia J, et al. 10 Situation Analysis of Children in the Philippines Overview of the Philippines Population The Philippines is the twelfth most populated country in the world. As part of the participatory research process of W-DARE, findings have been disseminated to relevant government and non-government stakeholders in Quezon City and Ligao City emphasizing the importance of including people with disabilities in their policies and programs. A person with a cognitive disability has greater difficulty with one or more types of mental tasks than the average person. Individuals were ranked according to the asset index of the household in which they resided. The prevalence of disability among adults in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City is higher than the estimated national prevalence of disability derived from the 2010 Philippines census. DEDICATION (NO REQUIRED FOR RESEARCH PAPER) (The dedication, as the name suggests is a … When an eligible household member was absent, at least two return visits were made. We thank Monsurul Hoq for his support with the data analysis. %���� Field supervisors and data collectors were recruited based on their skills and previous experience. endobj The prevalence of disability was not significantly different among people aged between 18 and 44 years in Ligao City. Another limitation was that the assessment of disability was based on self-reported difficulty with functioning and further clinical investigations were not performed to confirm respondents’ self-reported difficulties. Danquah L, Polack S, Brus A, Mactaggart I, Houdon CP, Senia P, et al. Disability was reported as a specific barrier by people with disabilities for participating in work, community meetings, and religious activities. We are very grateful for their support. endobj 2010. However, having a disability and negative family attitudes were reported as barriers for people with disabilities participating in work, community meetings, religious activities, and social activities suggesting stigma associated with disability in these communities. endobj 2015;15. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2202-7. Children with special needs (CWSN) experience disability in various areas. The major barriers reported under each domain were similar among people with and without disabilities (Table 5). Terms and Conditions, Article  2 0 obj Literature Review on Attitudes towards Disability 55 1 Introduction. A household was defined as a group of people who lived together, pooled their money, and ate at least one meal together each day. disability can also be defined as any form of impairment that negatively affects the ability of a person to function by and large. Although the RAD survey focused only on psychological distress related to anxiety and depression, findings from this survey highlight that a large proportion of people with other types of disability experience psychological distress. If you want to learn more about the senior citizen benefits and person with disability privileges in the Philippines, you can check out the following links: Senior Citizens • Republic Act No. Some men declined to participate when they became aware that the survey related to disability, as issues related to household health, including disability, were perceived to be the responsibility of women. CI, Confidence interval; CRPD, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; ICF, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; RAD, Rapid Assessment of Disability; SD, Standard Deviation; SDGs, Global Goals for Sustainable Development; W-DARE Women with Disability taking Action on Reproductive and sexual health project; WHS, World Health Survey. It does, however, highlight the need to ensure health and rehabilitation services are available in rural areas, and have the capacity and systems in place to respond to the needs of older people who are more likely to have disability. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. People with disabilities essay. Mitra S, Sambamoorthi U. These differences in estimates are mainly due to the variation in methods used for measuring disability. Manila is the capital of the country, located in Luzon which is the largest island. 4 0 obj A sample size of 3,010 was required to estimate disability prevalence with 95 % confidence level, 20 sampling error, a design effect of 1.5, a non-response rate of 10, and a conservative estimate of prevalence of disability at 5 %. persons. For every five PWD, one (18.9 percent) was aged 0 to 14 years, three (59.0 percent) were in the working age group (aged 15 to 64 years), and one (22.1 percent) was aged 65 years and over. 2008;22(1):141–63. Mitra S, Posarac A, Vick B. Google Scholar. Excessive People with and without disability were recruited as data collectors and were trained for a week on disability inclusion, study design, recruitment of participants, administration of the RAD questionnaire, ethics in research, collecting survey data, data storage, and referral mechanisms for participants. Philippines Statistics Authority. The World Bank Economic Review. The first item asks for the level of access to services with responses recorded on a 4-point Likert scale (‘as much as needed’ to ‘not at all’), with an additional category ‘had not needed the services.’ The second item asks for barriers to accessing services using open-ended questions. The household questionnaire assesses household demographics and socioeconomic status based on household characteristics such as source of water, having electricity, sanitation facility, roof, wall and floor materials, plus asset indicators including durable goods (e.g., television, radio, bicycle and motorcycle), and ownership of the house and land. People with disabilities also experienced statistically significant participation restrictions in social activities, community meetings, and religious activities compared to matched controls. Funding has also been provided by the UNFPA Philippines Country Office. Springer Nature. The prevalence of psychological distress alone (i.e., after excluding co-morbid functional limitations) was 0.9 (95 % CI: 0.5, 1.3) in Quezon City and 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.6, 2.4) in Ligao City. The RAD survey was developed to measure different domains of disability described in the International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF) framework [14, 15]. The mean ± SD age of participants was 38.9 ± 14.3 years in Quezon City and 41.9 ± 16.5 years in Ligao City, and women were over-represented in both locations. Marella, M., Devine, A., Armecin, G.F. et al. Given that the majority of households in District 2 of Quezon City and Ligao City also live in impoverished conditions, we hypothesize this is why our survey also found no difference in disability prevalence for people from poorer and richer quintiles. The Women with Disability taking Action on Reproductive and sexual health project (referred to hereafter as W-DARE), is a three-year participatory action research project [6]. As demonstrated in the previous RAD survey in Bangladesh, prevalence estimates with RAD are comparable to the WG short set questions that are most widely used in Censuses. But, if a person develops the habit of drinking for at least three bottles of beers every night, and his or her minimum wage is $5 a day, that would mean that spending 1% a day on beer is already 20% of his earned money (Valbuena, 2013). <>>> endstream %PDF-1.5 The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Elwan A. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Age was grouped into five categories (18–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–55, and 55 years and over), and education into four categories (no schooling, elementary, high school, and college/technical). BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):984. Comparing participation of people with disabilities with their age- and sex-matched controls is also important to inform future policies and programs in the study sites. 2013. https://psa.gov.ph/content/persons-disability-philippines-results-2010-census. The study was conducted in accordance with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. We would like to particularly thank Sally Baker for her support with training of the fieldwork team; Mona Pindog, Raquel Ignacio, and Judith Marbella and data collectors who undertook fieldwork in often difficult conditions in some of the communities; and the data entry staff and translators of the questionnaires. PubMed Google Scholar. The well-being scores were significantly lower for people with disabilities (mean ± SD: 57.3 ± 14.6) compared to people without disability (mean ± SD: 66.1 ± 14.1), p < 0.001. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). https://psa.gov.ph/content/age-and-sex-structure-philippine-population-facts-2010-census, https://psa.gov.ph/content/persons-disability-philippines-results-2010-census, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0096-y. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. One segment from each cluster was randomly selected by drawing lots. Article  ... themselves to ensuring that each and every person can access the conditions required to live as self-determining individuals. Trani J-F, Bakhshi P, Myer Tlapek S, Lopez D, Gall F. Disability and Poverty in Morocco and Tunisia: A Multidimensional Approach. World report on disability. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development. Lack of information and cost were the most commonly reported barrier for the majority of the domains. Prevalence of functional limitations in Quezon City and Ligao City. Disability in post-earthquake Haiti: prevalence and inequality in access to services. Psychological distress was the most commonly reported difficulty for participants aged between 18 and 54 years in Quezon City and among the age groups 18 and 34 years, and 55 years and over in Ligao City. Population Health Metrics Philippines Statistics Authority. All participants provided written or verbal informed consent. Human Development Report 2014 - Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. Trani JF, Loeb M. Poverty and disability: a vicious circle? Consistent with other surveys [1, 3, 5, 20], this study also found the prevalence of disability is associated with increasing age and lack of schooling. Google Scholar. In this survey, the sample from Quezon City was younger and had higher levels of education compared to the sample in Ligao City. This thesis is wholeheartedly dedicated to my family in the Philippines – Papa Polo, Mama Bebette, Manong Tonton, AJ, and Lynlyn – and to the Persons with Disabilities sector on the planet who still struggles to access quality and inclusive education. Manjula Marella. Disabil Rehabil. This is perhaps the reason why the institutional and legal environment has been made favorable to this particular group, especially in the area of employment. International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the development of the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015–2030, with disability explicitly mentioned in 5 of the 17 goals, particularly Target 17, which focuses on disability data disaggregation [13]. Persons with Disability in the Philippines (Results from the 2010 Census). The input of Disabled People’s Organizations into our research approach and the inclusion of people with disabilities in the survey team has increased the capacity of researchers with disability in the Philippines, and increased engagement between people with disabilities and policymakers, service providers, and government representatives at all levels. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S4. However, socioeconomic factors associated with disability and the level of access to services and participation in the community compared to people without disability were not studied. Within the selected segment, the survey team visited all households door-to-door, until 50 people aged 18 years and older were recruited. <> This approach not only builds their capacity to conduct research, but demonstrates their capacity within their communities. This study has also generated considerable context-specific data, which the W-DARE project have used to inform the design of interventions to increase access to specific domains of community life for people with disabilities in Quezon City and Ligao City. 9 0 obj This is an important finding as psychosocial disability and psychological distress among people with other forms of disability are rarely measured and are therefore not addressed in national efforts to increase disability inclusion in low- and middle-income countries. Persons with disability were more likely to be in the ages 5 to 19 years and 45 to 64 years. If participant responses include more than one barrier, they are asked to rank the most limiting barrier in the third item [15]. Phase one involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data to understand the lived experience of people with disabilities in the Philippines. endobj BMC Public Health. Persons with disability (PWDs) are among the vulnerable groups in the country that need utmost attention from the government. In accordance with local practice in the Philippines, relevant barangay kapitans (equivalent to head of a village or ward) were informed about the study and their endorsement was sought to facilitate introduction into the community. The individual questionnaire comprises four sections: 1) demographics, 2) self-assessment of functioning, 3) well-being, and 4) access to the community. Barriers related to costs were both direct (fees), and indirect costs (e.g., transport). They were also cognitively tested on a convenience sample of 14 participants with different disabilities to ensure a range of respondents understood the questions as intended and that their responses accurately reflected what was being asked. Disability is more prevalent among older respondents and those who had little or no education. The matching of cases and controls was not complete, particularly among those aged 55 years and over, and therefore analyses were adjusted by the matching variables of age and sex. Cases and controls were similar in age, sex, types of occupation, marital status, location, and socioeconomic status (Table 3). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011. Measuring disability and monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: the work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. endobj Responses to the level of access to different domains of community were dichotomized with the positive response category ‘as much as needed’ coded as ‘met need’ and the three negative response categories as ‘unmet need’ (Table 4). www.nda.ie 6 1.1. Outline of Presentation 1. World Bank. Manila: Katipunan ng Maykapansanan sa Pilipinas, Inc. (KAMPI) and Disability Rights Promotion International (DRPI); 2009. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. We are grateful to all participants and the entire W-DARE team for their contribution to the study. Physical difficulties related to using hands and fingers and mobility were the most commonly reported in 55 years and over age group in Quezon City. 5 0 obj Confidence intervals (CI) for prevalence estimates and regression odds ratios were calculated with adjustment for clustering effects in the study design using the generalized estimating equation approach. The similarity of their findings to results obtained using the RAD may be because both studies used questions about specific activity limitations. 2013;41:1–18. Rasch analysis was used to derive person measures for the well-being section. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Findings are relevant to government and other national agencies seeking to support universal access to a range of services, and more specifically, to respond to the needs of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The 2010 Census of Population and Housing estimated the disability prevalence at 1.6 % [10] using questions based on the short set of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics (WG) questionnaire [18]. However, earlier reports note that the quality of employment of PWDs still needs improvement. In Ligao City, seeing (4.9, 95 % CI: 3.4, 6.9), concentrating (4.2, 95 % CI: 2.8, 6.1), and remembering (3.7 %, 95 % CI: 2.5, 5.5) were the most commonly reported functional limitations. Prevalence and correlates of disability in Bogra district of Bangladesh using the Rapid Assessment of Disability survey. The difference in the disability prevalence between the two sites was therefore not unexpected. 60 clusters of 50 people aged 18 years and older were selected with probability proportion to size sampling from both locations. In the case of a sample of 50 people aged 18 years and older not being reached in a segment, households from another randomly selected segment were recruited. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in District 2 in Quezon City (a densely populated, urban district) and in Ligao City, Albay (a predominantly rural district) in the Philippines between December 2013 and January 2014. In Ligao City, a total of 823 people were enumerated, of whom 765 (93.0 %) participated in the survey and 58 (7.0 %) were either unavailable or declined to participate in the study. Broken Framing: An Assessment on the News Coverage of Disabilities by the Philippine Daily Inquirer and the Philippine Star from 2010 – 2012, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. BMC Public Health. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Twenty years of non-communicable diseases (NCD) prevention and control in the Philippines (1986–2006). Madans JH, Loeb ME, Altman BM. Household members and neighbors reported that many non-responders away from the home during the day were at work. 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